Basic techniques needed:
And at least one of the following:
Ingredients (for 4 people):
1/2 onion, finely chopped
4 garlic cloves, minced
4 anchovy fillets
800g peeled tomatoes
Salt & sugar, to taste
Finely chopped parsley, to taste
Chilli pepper (optional but recommended)
600g of clams OR 600g of mussels OR 300g of each
6 large or 8 medium prawns
500g squid OR 500g cuttlefish
Frutti di mare is the generic Italian word for seafood. Basically, we say ‘sea fruits’ instead of seafood.
However, meaning of the name aside, pasta with seafood is by far one of my favourites, as long as it is made properly and using good quality ingredients. In a nutshell, what I will describe here is a tomato sauce (see Tomato Sauce in Basics, you will just add some anchovy fillets when sweating the onions and squid or cuttlefish before adding the tomato) with the addition of various types of seafood, most of which will be cooked separately to get the best flavour and texture out of them, and then added to the sauce.
Also note that, since all the ingredients have to be fresh (although prawns and squid can be an exception, and I will explain it), and any reputable fishmonger that sells fresh fish will NOT have everything everyday, you will have to select the ingredients when doing your shopping. Therefore, I will provide guidance on different types of seafood but bear in mind that you don’t need to use them altogether, I would say that three works very well for me, I normally include squid or cuttlefish, that I cook with the sauce, some shellfish (either mussels or clams) and crustaceans (shrimps, but also langostines are good). If I find it fresh, I also love crab, as it gives a fantastic flavour. However, it needs to be treated after cooking or taken off the sauce and used separately as we will see.
NOTE: If you are using mussels, clams and/or prawns, prepare them before you start making the sauce, as you will need to use the liquid for your sauce:
Also, the only items that you will cook with the sauce from the beginning are the squids (or cuttlefish if using). Shellfish needs to be cooked separately and added at the end, crustaceans (like prawns), once shelled, need to be added at the end as they required minimal cooking
This is the process. In order to understand this recipe, read it through to the end, as I will explain certain things at the end.
So. after you have cooked the clams or mussels and filtered their liquid, and made the prawns stock if using it do the following:
- Sweat the onion for 5 minutes in 2 tbsp. of olive oil
- Add the minced garlic and anchovy fillet
- When the anchovy fillets have dissolved into the oil, add the squid (or cuttlefish), prepared as below (Next paragraph: How to treat seafood)
- Cook gently without adding any liquid; the squid/ cuttlefish will release its own water, and cook on low heat until it has almost completely evaporated
- Add the tomato (blended and passed through a sieve – see Tomato Sauce)
- Add some liquid:
1) if using prawns, use the stock, made as described in Prawns & prawn stock
2) if using mussels or clams, use the liquid, filtered as described in How to steam mussels
Even better if you use both!
- Bring to the boil and then simmer, skimming the surface, for an hour or until the desired thickness is reached – if using crab, add it when the sauce is simmering -see below for cooking times
- Season wilt salt and sugar
- Add the other ingredients: prawns, shellfish or whatever you like (see below for cooking times)
- Add a good handful of finely chopped parsley and some chilli pepper (optional but recommended)
- Let it cool down completely before using it.
HOW TO TREAT SEAFOOD:
Squid and cuttlefish will make your sauce more substantial and will also add interesting note to your dish. Since I like to be in control of the outcome when I cook, I prefer to cook them separately and add them to the sauce at the end, when the sauce is ready; cooking them in the sauce you might end up overcooking them
First, some consideration on the product: make sure you buy unprocessed squid . Squid can be fresh or defrosted, it will still be good, but do not buy any precooked one; also, be wary of the so-called calamari (which indicates squid rings in English but is simply the plural for squid in Italian), as it might be processed as well and go for the whole squid; if unsure on how to clean it, have your fishmonger do it for you.
Once cleaned, lay the squid tube on the cutting board and you will find a groove inside; with a very sharp knife, cut along that to open the tube up. You will see that the two sides do not have the same consistency, the outside is harder and the inside is softer
You can cut it in small pieces now, otherwise, you can give it a Chinese style criss-cross pattern that will make it look better when cooked: using a very sharp knife and being light-handed, make shallow incisions; it is preferable to do this on the softer side; whilst it is preferable to cut it into pieces with the harder side up.
- Once that has been cut, season with salt and cook gently in a tbsp. of oil without adding any liquid; the squid/ cuttlefish will release its own water, and cook on low heat until it has almost completely evaporated
- At that point, try if itstender enough; if not, add a splash of liquid (water or white wine, depending on your taste) and cook until the desired texture is reached (you might need to repeat the operation)
CUTTLEFISH: to some extent it is similar to squid once cooked, although much different as it’s got a big bone and the body is not a tube like squid; it’s also got a much bigger ink sac (the ink can be used as an ingredient in many other preparations) and it is more tender and requires a shorter cooking time compared to squid.
Other than that, what I said about the criss-cross pattern applies to it as well
MUSSELS: either mussels or clams is a must in a seafood sauce, it won’t just look and taste right without. Mussels are very delicate and the long cooking time of the sauce would destroy them; furthermore, the liquid that they release needs to be filtered, as it might contain sand and other impurities, therefore you should cook them separately.
See How to steam mussels for more details. I suggest that you cook the mussels and filter their liquid before adding the tomato sauce to the squid (or cuttlefish base). At this point you should know that you need to add some liquid to the tomato in order to simmer your sauce, and you can add that liquid instead of /along with the water.
IMPORTANT: the liquid is very salty, so that will reduce the amount of salt you need to add to the sauce
Cooking time in the sauce: add them to the sauce after turning the heat off as the mussels should be completely cooked already and overcooking will ruin them
CLAMS: clams are cooked pretty much like mussels, the only difference is that they do not have bits of seaweed coming out of the shell but will need to be rinsed thoroughly before cooking. Everything else is the same, including filtering the liquid and adding it to the sauce
Cooking time in the sauce: you can add them after turning the heat off as the clams should be completely cooked (same as mussels)
See: Prawns & prawn stock :
Shells and de-vein the prawns, make a stock with the heads and shells, add it to the tomato sauce and simmer until it reaches the desired thickness.
You can cut the tails as you wish: in small pieces, or lengthwise (they will take a nice spiral shape when they cook), or just leave them whole and place one on top of the pasta for a nice presentation
Cooking time in the sauce: prawn tails require minimal cooking, 3-4 minutes is enough
I do not suggest a whole crab for your sauce, unless you’ve got a massive pot. Also, use fresh crab (it should actually be still alive when you buy it). If only precooked crab is available, just leave it, it’s pointless.
To make it easier I suggest that you buy the claws only (obviously is available and fresh): cook them in the sauce until you smell the crab (you won’t miss it it’s a very distinctive aroma), then take them off the sauce, rinse and break the shells to extract the pulp. The pulp can then be added to the sauce, but personally I prefer using it for other preparations (a filling for ravioli, a mousse, a fish cake just to name the most obvious)